Thursday, September 13, 2007

Armenian-Turkish border determined by Wodroow Wilson arbitration award

/PanARMENIAN.Net/ “The interest is explained by the fact that the emphasis was laid on history while the legal aspect was quite forgotten. From 1918 to 1923 five treaties determined the Armenian-Turkish border. The Sevr Treaty was signed on 10 August, 1920. It was followed by the Alexandropol Treaty (3 December, 1920), the Moscow Treaty (16 March, 1921), the Kars Treaty (13 October, 1921), and finally, the Lousanne Treaty (24 July, 1923),” diplomat and historian Ara Papian said in an interview with PanARMENIAN.Net.

“On the whole, international agreements may be signed by the subjects of international law, i.e. by the legitimate government through its plenipotentiary. From this stand, only the Sevr and Lousanne treaties are valid. The Alexandropol Treaty was concluded at the time when Kemalists had not come to power in Turkey while Dashnaktsutyun had already lost the power. The Moscow and Kars treaties have no legal effect at all, since they were signed by Kemalists, although Sultan was formally the head of the state till 1923. By the way, on 11 May, 1920 the Turkish tribunal demoted and sentenced to death General Mustafa Kemal (later known as Kemal Ataturk). The court verdict was approved by the Sultan on 24 May, 1920,” he said.

“As to Soviet Russia, it has not been recognized by legitimate states until 1 February, 1924. Thus, its signature is not valid either,” he noted.

“As a matter of fact, the Sevr Treaty was not ratified. However, it remains valid. The most important point is that the Armenian-Turkish border was determined by the arbitration award of U.S. President Wodroow Wilson. Not all remember that Armenia was among the winners of the World War I and it put signature to the Sevr Treaty. France, UK and Italy turned to President Wilson for arbitration award. This award cannot be appealed. Signed on 22 November 1920, it was conveyed to the Parisian Conference on 6 December, but unfortunately, the Republic of Armenia was occupied by the 11th Red Army on 3 December.

With proclaiming independence in 1991, Armenia has become a subject of international law again. According to the arbitration award, Armenia was entitled to receive 4 vilayets: Van, Bitlis, Erzrum and Trabzon, which ensured outlet to the sea.

33 countries of the world have no outlet to the sea. These are the states of Central Africa, a couple of states in South America, several states in Eurasia and Armenia…” Ara Papian said.

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